Sng Tc Mới

Th Luc Bat

 

 

Ngi Viet Nam rat snh th. Co ngi con manh dan cho rang moi ngi Viet Nam la mot thi s. ieu nay khong han la ung, nhng cau v o rat hp tnh hp ly v ai ai cung co the noi th c, bat luan ngi ay co trnh o hoc van cao thap nh the nao. Con muon tr thanh thi s th ngi ay phai co mot trnh o hoc van toi thieu, kem theo s hieu biet ve cau truc ky thuat cua moi the th. Neu ngi lam th ma khong nam vng cau truc ky thuat cua luat th th bai th o b hong. Co nhieu ngi lam th ma khong nam vng luat th cho nen khong the c goi la thi s c, mac du ngi ay a tng lam kha nhieu th, hoac in kha nhieu thi tap.

Bai viet nay nam trong khuon kho ghi nhan ve cac the th can ban Viet Nam ma qui ban a tng bat gap tren cac tap ch hoac trong cac thi tap, vi c mong giup cac ban tre snh th, muon lam th, va muon tr thanh thi s nam vng luat th. Ngi viet co gang viet that ngan gon va trong sang e cac ban de dang thong suot. Kem theo moi the th la nhng cau th, oan th hoac bai th dan chng lam kieu mau.

Ngi viet se lan lt gii thieu en cac ban cac the th thong thng nh: The Luc Bat, Bien The Luc Bat, The Song That Luc Bat, The That Ngon/Bay Ch (Th Cu), The That Ngon/Bay Ch (Th Mi), va The Th Tam Ch.

  The Luc Bat

Th Luc Bat, con c goi la th Sau Tam, v cau i trc co 6 ch, con cau i sau co 8 ch. C the ma lap lai hoai cho ti khi nao tac gia muon ngng bai th. Thong thng, bai th Luc Bat dng lai cau 8.  

          1.   Cach Gieo VanCh cuoi cua cau tren (tc cau 6) phai van vi ch th sau cua cau di (tc cau 8). C moi hai cau th oi van, va bao gi cung gieo van bang (con goi la bang hoac bnh, tc co dau huyen hoac khong dau). Ky hieu cua bang la B. ac biet ch th t cua cau 6 va cau 8 va ch th bay cua cau 8 luon luon c gieo van trac hay trac (tc co dau sac, dau hoi, dau nga, hoac dau nang). Ky hieu cua trac la T. Ch th sau cua cau 8 c goi la yeu van (van lng chng cau), va ch th 8 cua cau tam c goi la cc van (van cuoi cau). Van hay van la tieng ong thanh vi nhau. Gieo van th phai hiep van (tc cho ung van cua no). V du: hon, non, mon, con... Neu gieo van ma vi may th b lac van. Con neu gieo van khong hiep vi nhau th goi la cng van. V du: tin i vi tien.

          2.   Luat Bang TracCach dung mau t va viet tat nh sau: B la Bang, T la Trac, V  la Van.

Ch th

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Cau 6

B

B

T

T

B

B

 

 

Cau 8

B

B

T

T

B

B

T

B

V du:

Cau 6:              Tram nam |  trong coi  | ngi ta

                  Cau 8:                              Ch tai | ch menh |  kheo la | ghet nhau

                  Cau 6:                            Trai qua |  mot cuoc  |  be dau

                  Cau 8:                      Nhng ieu |  trong thay |  ma au | n long

                                                                                        (Kieu)

Ghi chu:  Ch la va au la yeu van (tc la van at trong cau); ch nhau va long la cc van (tc la van at cuoi cau). Ch th 6 cua cau 6 (ta) hiep van (V) vi ch th 6 cua cau 8 (la), ch th 8 (nhau) cua cau 8 hiep van (V) vi ch th 6 (dau) cua cau 6, ch th 6 (dau) cua cau 6 hiep van (V) vi ch th 6 (au) cua cau 8.

            Biet leTuy luat bang trac a qui nh nh tren, nhng nhng ch th 1, th 3 va th 5 neu khong theo ung luat th cung khong sao. Cai biet le ay c goi la nhat, tam, ngu bat luan, co ngha la ch th 1, ch th 3 va ch th 5 khong ke (bat luan), tc khong nhat thiet phai theo ung luat. Con cac ch th 2, ch th 4, va ch th 6 bat buoc phai theo ung luat (phan minh), do cau nh, t, luc phan minh.

            V du:

                                    Tram nam trong coi ngi ta (Kieu)

            (Ghi chu: ch th 3 (trong) ang le thuoc van Trac, nhng lai oi thanh van Bang).

                                    Ch tai ch menh kheo la ghet nhau (Kieu)

            (Ghi chu: ch th 1 (Ch) va th 5 (kheo) ang le thuoc van Bang, nhng lai oi thanh van Trac).

            3.   ThanhThanh gom co Tram Bnh Thanh va Phu Bnh Thanh. Tram Bnh Thanh la nhng tieng hay ch co dau huyen. V du: la, long, phong... Phu Bnh Thanh la nhng tieng hay ch khong co dau. V du: nhau, au, mau... Trong cau 8, hai ch th 6 va th 8 luon luon van Bang, nhng khong c co cung mot thanh. Co nh the, am ieu mi em ai va de nghe. Neu ch th 6 thuoc Phu Bnh Thanh th ch th 8 phai thuoc Tram Bnh Thanh, va ngc lai.

                   V du:

                                    Ch tai ch menh kheo la ghet nhau.

                   (Ghi chu: la thuoc Tram Bnh Thanh, nhau thuoc Phu Bnh Thanh).

                                    Nhng ieu trong thay ma au n long.

                   (Ghi chu: au thuoc Phu Bnh Thanh, long thuoc Tram Bnh Thanh).

          4.   Pha LuatThnh thoang chung ta bat gap ngi lam th thch pha luat ch th hai cau 6, thay v van bang th lai oi ra van trac; con ch th t th co khi oi thanh van bang thay v van trac nh thng le. Cau 6 cung c ngat ra lam hai ve.

                   V du:                 Mai cot cach | tuyet tinh than (B T T T B B)

                                     Moi ngi | mot ve | mi phan | ven mi  (T B T T B B T B)

(Kieu)

                                              au n thay | phan an ba (B T B T B B)

(Kieu)

                                                 Khi ta goi | khi cui au (B T T B T B)

(Kieu)

                                             o te nhuyen | cua rieng tay  (B T T T B B)

                                  Sach sanh sanh vet | cho ay  tui tham (T B B T B B T B)

(Kieu)

Bien The Luc Bat

Bien The Luc Bat la the van bien oi cach gieo van.

 

                  V du:

                        Cau 6:    Va ra en ch mot khi

                        Cau 8:    Thay rong che phu t vi mot ngi

                        Cau 6:    Nguyen nang so ly nghe noi

                        Cau 8:    Di at tren tri thuoc het moi phng   (T T B B T T B B)

                                           (Truyen Ly Cong )

Chu thch: Cau tam th hai va pha luat va bien the. Ch th t (tri) cua cau 8 lai van vi ch th sau (noi) cua cau 6.

Hoac:

                        Cau 6:    Khoan khoan chan bc ben ng

                        Cau 8:    Thay chang ho Ly ngoi ng an may

                        Cau 6:    au thi oi non co may

                        Cau 8:    Mat vo mnh gay cam sach gi lau   (T T B B B T B B)

                                                (Truyen Ly Cong)

            Chu thch: Cau tam th hai va pha luat va bien the. Ch th t (gay) cua cau 8 lai van vi ch th sau (may) cua cau 6.

Tren ay la mot so niem luat can ban cua th Luc Bat. Lam th Luc Bat tuy de ma kho. Cai kho la cach gieo van, lam sao ng cho b lac van hoac cng van. Mot bai th hay ma b lac van hoac cng van th se lam hong ca bai th, cung giong nh mot con sau lam hong ca noi canh ngon vay!

Ngi viet se neu mot vai v du ien hnh e ban thay nhng khuyet iem nho nho ma ngi lam th khong e y ti, co the v cha nam vng niem luat hoac cung co the v coi thng niem luat. S khong hiep van ay goi la cng van hay ep van (tin i vi tien) va lac van (ma i vi may).

(Ghi Chu: Ve Van hay Van, xin xem mot bai viet rieng ve Thanh, Bang Trac va Van cua cung tac gia se cong hien cac ban trong mot dp khac.)

V du:

Nh xuan la an rng oi

Nh em khong ngu cuoi tri Viet Nam

Bay gi mn chut thi gian

Chia cho hien tai e lam qua Xuan

Chu thch:

oi i vi tri la Cng van (oi vi tri thuoc Van Thong,1 ch hp ve Thanh ch khong hp ve Am).

Nam i vi gian la Lac van (Nam va gian khong thuoc Van Chnh 2 va Van Thong).

gian i vi lam la Lac van (gian va lam khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

Nh mi quang biet Quynh Coi

Nh hng bo ket nh ngi me que

Chu thch:

Coi i vi ngi la Lac van (Coi va ngi khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

Nh em phung phu: tri ma

Giao tha chang c vui ua vi nhau

Chu thch:

Ma i vi ua la Cng van (ma va ua thuoc Van Thong, ch hp ve Thanh ch khong hp ve Am).

Co ngi hom ay chai au

Vo tnh toc c bay vao vai ta

Chu thch:

au i vi vao la Lac van (au va vao khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

 

Ly ca phe My nhat hn

Nhng ay chat ang trong hon tha hng

Chu thch:

hn i vi hon la Cng van (hn va hon thuoc Van Thong, ch hp ve Thanh ch khong hp ve Am).

 

Van khong gian ay bao bung

Hay mo hoi ti tren thung lung can

Bay gi ngoi gia the gian

So giay m th may gam giao mua

Chu thch:

can i vi gian la Lac van (can va gian khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

gian i vi gam la Lac van (gian va gam khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

 

Gio thm t thu hoang hon

Theo chan anh sang ve om ngang tri

Chu thch:

hon i vi om la Lac van (hon va om khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

 

Rng Xuan hoa la em em

Co ngi th than i tm phong lan

Chu thch:

em i vi tm la Lac van (em va tm khong thuoc Van Chnh va Van Thong).

 

Qua cac dan chng tren ay, ngi viet hy vong ban se tranh c cac loi lam ang tiec, e bai th Luc Bat cua ban c em ai va hoan hao hn. ng v tiec cong hoac ngai kho ma lam hong i mot bai th hay. Neu can vt bo mi bai th (b hong niem luat) e ch con gi lai mot bai th hay (ung niem luat) th ban cung nen lam. Chuc ban thanh cong.

 

Vnh Liem 

(c Pho, ngay 14 thang 5 nam 1992)


1   Van Thong la nhng van ch hp nhau ve thanh, con am th tng t ch khong hp han.

2   Van Chnh la nhng van ma ca thanh lan am eu hp nhau.

 

   Contact: Vinh Liem

                   1 Applegrath Court, Germantown, MD 20876-5613 (U.S.A.)

                   E-mail: vinhliem9@aol.com; vinhliem9@hotmail.com

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