Sng Tc Mới

Th ng Luat

Cach Gieo Van, Nguyen Tac oi, va Luat Bang Trac

 

 

 

Th ng  Luat con co nhng ten goi khac nhau nh: Th ng, ng Thi, That Ngon Bat Cu va That Ngon Bat Cu ng Luat. Th ng Luat co 2 loai: T Tuyet (tc moi cau co 7 ch va moi bai co 4 cau) va Bat Cu (tc moi cau co 7 ch va moi bai co 8 cau). Trong bai nay, ngi viet ch lam ban ti the That Ngon Bat Cu ma thoi.

 

I.     Cach Gieo VanTh ng Luat co luat le nhat nh cua no, ban khong the bien che mot cach khac c. Cach gieo van nh sau:

-         Suot bai th ch gieo theo mot van ma thoi. V du: Van oi th i vi oi, van ta th i vi ta hoac ta.

-         Trong bai th co 5 van c gieo cuoi cau au (tc cau so 1) va cuoi cac cau chan (tc cau 2, 4, 6 va 8).

-         Gieo van th phai hiep van (tc cho ung van cua no). V du: hon, non, mon, con Neu gieo van ma vi may th b lac van. Con neu gieo van khong hiep vi nhau th goi la cng van hay ep van, chang han nh: in vi tien.

 

II.    Nguyen Tac oiCac cau oi vi nhau phai that chnh, ca ve y, ve tnh, ve the loai t ng, v.v The loai t ng tc tnh t phai oi vi tnh t, danh t phai oi vi danh t, ong t phai oi vi ong t, v.v 

        Trong bai th co 4 phan: e (gom co Pha e va Tha e), Thc hoac Trang, Luan, va Ket.

        1.   e gom co hai phan:

  -   Pha e (cau th 1):

                 Bc ti eo Ngang bong xe ta,

              -   Tha e (cau th 2): 

                              Co cay chen a, la chen hoa.

2.      Thc hoac trang (cau th 3 va cau th 4): Hai cau nay phai oi vi nhau.

                              Lom khom di nui, tieu vai chu,

                              Lac ac ben song, ch may nha.

             Ghi chu: Lom khom oi vi lac ac (trang t) va bang oi vi trac. Tieu oi vi ch (danh t) va bang oi vi trac. Chu oi vi nha (danh t) va trac oi vi bang.

3.                  Luan (cau th 5 va cau th 6): Luan co ngha la luan ban. Hai cau nay ban bac

them ve noi dung cua bai th, ve phong canh hay ve tnh cam. Hai cau nay phai oi vi nhau.

      Nh nc, au long con quoc quoc,

      Thng nha, moi mieng cai gia gia.

             Ghi chu: Nh oi vi thng (ong t) va trac oi vi bang. Nc oi vi nha (danh t) va trac oi vi bang. au long oi vi moi mieng (trang t) va bang oi vi trac. Con quoc quoc oi vi cai gia gia (danh t) va trac oi vi bang.

        4.   Ket (cau th 7 va cau th 8): Hai cau ket khong nhat thiet phai oi nhau, nhng phai gi luat bang trac.

                              Dng chan ng lai: tri, non, nc,

                              Mot manh tnh rieng ta vi ta.

                              (Ba Huyen Thanh Quan: Qua eo Ngang)

              Ghi chu: Dng chan la van bang oi vi mot manh la van trac; ng lai la van trac oi vi tnh rieng la van bang; nc la van trac oi vi ta la van bang.

 

III.   Luat Bang TracLuat Bang Trac gom co Thanh, Luat, va Niem.

1.     ThanhGom co Thanh Bang va Thanh Trac.

a.  Thanh Bangla nhng tieng hay ch khong co dau (nh: minh, lan, thanh, hoa) va nhng tieng hay ch co dau huyen (nh: ngi, tri, tnh).

 

b.  Thanh tracLa nhng tieng hay ch co dau sac (  ), dau hoi (  ), dau nga (   ), va dau nang ( .). V du: la, bat, tng, nh, mu, cu, t, tro

 

2.      LuatTh bat cu lam theo hai luat: Luat Bang va Luat Trac.

a.  Luat BangCh th hai cau au thuoc van Bang. V du:

Ao thu lanh leo nc trong veo

(1)   Luat Bang Van BangCach dung mau t va viet tat nh sau: B la Bang, T la Trac va V la Van. Luat Bang Van Bang nh sau:

          1. B B T T T B B (V)

2. T T B B T T B (V)

3. T T B B B T T

4. B B T T T B B (V)

5. B B T T B B T

6. T T B B T T B (V)

7. T T B B B T T

8.   B B T T T B B (V)

V du:

                        Co hang lay sach cap ra ay!

                        Xem th truyen nao thu lai say.

                        N tu co bao xin xep ca,

                        Phng hoa phong lieu co con hay?

                        Tuyen phu mac y tm cho ky,

                        Chinh phu the nao ban lay may.

                        Ky ngo bch cau xin tien hoi,

                        Gia tien ca o tnh sao vay.

(Ho Xuan HngHoi Co Hang Sach)

 

b.  Luat TracCh th hai cau au thuoc van Trac. V du:

Bc ti eo Ngang bong xe ta

(1)   Luat Trac Van BangLuat Trac Van Bang nhu sau:

1. T T B B T T B (V)

2. B B T T T B B (V)

3. B B T T B B T

4. T T B B T T B (V)

5. T T B B B T T

6. B B T T T B B (V)

7. B B T T B B T

8.  T T B B T T B (V)

V du:

                        Vang vang tai nghe tieng khoc g?

                        Thng chong nen khoc t t ti.

                        Ngot bui, thiep nh mui cam thao,

                        Cay ang, chang i, v que chi.

                        Thach nhu, tran b, sao e lai,

                        Quy than, lien nhuc, tam mang i.

                        Dao cau, thiep biet trao ai nh?

                        Sinh ky, chang i, t tac quy.

                        (Ho Xuan HngBa Lang Khoc Chong)

 

Chu Thch: Nhng ch co gach di (ch th 2, 4 va 6) eu phai theo ung luat, con nhng ch khac (tr ch cuoi cau) co the khong can phai theo luat. Meo e nh:

                                    Nhat (ch th 1), tam (ch th 3), ngu (ch th 5) bat luan

                                    Nh (ch th 2), t (ch th 4), luc (ch th 6) phan minh

Ngha la ch th nhat, th ba va th nam khong ke (bat luan), tc khong nhat thiet phai theo ung luat; con ch th hai, th t va th sau th bat buoc phai theo luat (phan minh). Neu khong theo luat th goi la that luat.

 

3.      NiemNhng ch phai i cap vi nhau va dnh vi nhau.

V du: Luat Bang Van Bang.

Cau 1 niem vi cau 8

1.            B B T T T B B (V)

Cau 2 niem vi cau 3

2.            T T B B T T B (V)

3.            T T B B B T T

Cau 4 niem vi cau 5

4.            B B T T T B B (V)

5.            B B T T B B T

Cau 6 niem vi cau 7

6.            T T B B T T B (V)

7.            T T B B B T T

Cau 8 niem vi cau 1

8.             B B T T T B B (V)

 

V du: Luat Trac Van Bang.

Cau 1 niem vi cau 8

1.            T T B B T T B (V)

Cau 2 niem vi cau 3

2.            B B T T T B B (V)

3.            B B T T B B T

Cau 4 niem vi cau 5

4.            T T B B T T B (V)

5.            T T B B B T T

Cau 6 niem vi cau 7

6.            B B T T T B B (V)

7.            B B T T B B T

Cau 8 niem vi cau 1

8.            T T B B T T B (V)

 

Cung co trng hp nha th lam sai luat, thay v ang Luat Bang th lai oi sang Luat Trac. V  Niem khong i vi nhau nen goi la That Niem.

V du: Dung bai th Canh Lam Le (Lay Chong Chung) cua Ho Xuan Hng (ung niem luat) e oi sang that niem (xem ch th 2 co gach di):

            Ke ap chan bong, ke lanh lung,

            Chem cha cai kiep lay chong chung!

            Nam th mi hoa, nen chang ch,

            Mot thang oi lan, co cung khong

            Co am an xoi, xoi lai hong,

            Cam bang lam mn, mn khong cong.

            Than nay v biet dng nay nh,

            Tha trc thoi anh vay xong.

oi thanh that niem:

            Ke ap chan bong, ke lanh lung,

            Chem cha cai kiep lay chong chung!

            Co am an xoi, xoi lai hong (that niem),

            Cam bang lam mn, mn khong cong.

Nam th mi hoa, nen chang ch,

            Mot thang oi lan, co cung khong

            Than nay v biet dng nay nh,

            Tha trc thoi anh vay xong.

Chu y: Du ch at sai co mot cau (cau th 3) nhng b that niem toan bai th. The mi biet luat th ng khat khe biet dng nao!

 

Khi lam th ng Luat th phai gi cho ung niem luat. Neu khong, du bai th cua ban co noi dung hay may i na th cung khong the chap nhan c.

 

Vnh Liem

(c Pho, 15 thang 9 nam 2001)

 

   Contact: Vinh Liem

                   1 Applegrath Court, Germantown, MD 20876-5613 (U.S.A.)

                   E-mail: vinhliem9@aol.com; vinhliem9@hotmail.com

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